Reprocessing of nuclear fuels and plutonium breeder commercialization

implications of deferral by Perry, Wayne D.

Publisher: Rand in Santa Monica, Calif

Written in English
Published: Pages: 57 Downloads: 923
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Subjects:

  • Reactor fuel reprocessing.,
  • Nuclear fuels.

Edition Notes

StatementWayne D. Perry.
SeriesRand paper series ; P-6226
The Physical Object
Paginationvii, 57 p. :
Number of Pages57
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL16326278M

  Powering the future – with no compromises Anthony Watts / Ap A molten salt reactor (MSR) is a class of nuclear fission reactor in which the primary nuclear reactor coolant and/or the fuel is a molten salt mixture. Japan Plutonium Overhang Origins and Dangers Debated by U.S. Officials Proliferation Risks of Japanese Plutonium Surpluses Troubled U.S. Officials Origins, Dangers of Japan’s Excess Supply Dates Back Decades, Forward to Controversy Continues Today Over Whether Reprocessing by Japan Should Continue National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book . 3. Environmental Analysis of the Uranium Fuel Cycle, Part II - Nuclear Power Reactors, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA/C (November ). 4. Environmental Analysis of the Uranium Fuel Cycle, Part III - Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA/D (October ). 5. But delays in the commercialization of breeder reactors have led a number of countries to pursue major programs to use plutonium as mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel in LWRs, to limit the buildup of excess stocks of separated plutonium. 33 As just noted, despite these recycling programs, some 86 tons of separated plutonium has built up, and reprocessing.

  This is good news. But there is still a problem created 30 years ago when President Jimmy Carter forbade the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel, establishing the once-through fuel cycle and effectively killing active development of commercial nuclear power. This wrong-headed decision was prompted by concern about the spread of nuclear weapons. One point on plutonium covered elsewhere in the book concerns how breeders and plutonium got their present “bad” reputation. “The methods of reprocessing commercial nuclear fuel in current use in several nations (but not in the US) were actually developed originally to provide very pure plutonium for use in nuclear weapons. Harold A. Feiveson, Alexander Glaser, Zia Mian and Frank von Hippel. Adapted from the introduction to Unmaking the Bomb: A Fissile Material Approach to Nuclear Disarmament and Nonproliferation (MIT Press, ). Introduction. It is seven decades since the first nuclear explosion. On 16 July , in the Alamogordo Desert in southern New Mexico, the United . GENERAL ELECTRIC DIRECT EXPERIENCE IN HANDLING AND__USING PLUTONIUM A. Experience with Plutonium at Vallecitos Nuclear Center The General Electric Company has been actively engaged in the development of plutonium-bearing fuels since CL its Vall-_-c-itos Nuclear Center (VKC), *Letter to the AEC, dated 11/6/74, signed by A. N. Ttchaeche of.

recommended against commercial reprocessing and recycling of plutonium and in favor both of an indefinite deferral of reprocessing and postponement of breeder reactor commercialization. It urged a ban on the export of reprocessing facilities and called for establishment of sufficient uranium enrichment capacity to meet global needs. "Civilian nuclear plants where designed, built, and operated to reduce the costs of nuclear weapons." Nope. They were, in fact, designed in a manner that made it very difficult/inefficient to use them to produce weapons-grade plutonium. Reactors designed to produce weapons-grade material operate in a completely different regime. Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power r power can be obtained from nuclear fission, nuclear decay and nuclear fusion. Presently, the vast majority of electricity from nuclear power is produced by nuclear fission of .   7 thoughts on “ Historic Idaho Reactors Detailed at ANS Winter Meeting ” Gordon Hodges January 4, at I was enlisted Navy MM3, Class , A1W plant at the Idaho NPTU, graduating June

Reprocessing of nuclear fuels and plutonium breeder commercialization by Perry, Wayne D. Download PDF EPUB FB2

Additional Physical Format: Online version: Perry, Wayne D. (Wayne DeRoyce), Reprocessing of nuclear fuels and plutonium breeder commercialization. Although, President Reagan initially criticized Carter's nuclear power policies, for simple economic reasons U.S. industry then as now was not interested.

This reappraisal soon led to cancellation of breeder commercialization and plutonium recycle, leaving the Barnwell reprocessing plant without an operating license or a mission. From tothe United States joined other nations in the International Fuel Cycle Evaluation to reconsider the commercial use of plutonium.

@article{osti_, title = {Technical aspects of fuel reprocessing}, author = {Groenier, W S}, abstractNote = {The purpose of this paper is to present a brief description of fuel reprocessing and some present developments which show the reliability of nuclear energy as a long-term supply.

The following topics are discussed: technical reasons for reprocessing; economic reasons for. (Invited) Pyrochemical Reprocessing of Used Nuclear Fuels Conference Paper (PDF Available) in ECS Transactions 33(7) January with Reads How we measure 'reads'. Early US work in breeder reprocessing was carried out at the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) facilities with the early metal fuels, and interest has renewed recently in metal fuels.

A major, comprehensive program, focused on oxide fuels, has been carried out in the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at the Oak Ridge National. Reprocessing was developed by the United States during the Manhattan Project to obtain plutonium for nuclear weapons by chemically separating it from spent nuclear fuel.

During the s, under the leadership of plutonium co-discoverer Glenn Seaborg, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission promoted the civil use of reprocessing to separate plutonium. Sustainable Nuclear Power provides non-nuclear engineers, scientists and energy planners with the necessary information to understand and utilize the major advances in the field.

The book demonstrates that nuclear fission technology has the abundance and attainability to provide centuries of safe power with minimal greenhouse gas generation. An alternative approach to managing Japan’s spent nuclear The dream of plutonium breeder reactors it gave permission to British Nuclear Fuels.

Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power r power can be obtained from nuclear fission, nuclear decay and nuclear fusion reactions.

Presently, the vast majority of electricity from nuclear power is produced by nuclear. For allies with “advanced nuclear programs” and strong interests in breeder reactor research, Smith raised the possibility replacing case-by-case approval with “batch or generic authorizations (for a period of years) for reprocessing and plutonium use for breeder [reactor] R&D, subject to interruption only when there is a material breach.

Peak uranium is the point in time that the maximum global uranium production rate is reached. After that peak, according to Hubbert peak theory, the rate of production enters a terminal uranium is used in nuclear weapons, its primary use is for energy generation via nuclear fission of the uranium isotope in a nuclear power reactor.

Each kilogram of. By using the advantages of pyroreprocessing technology, which is applicable to various fuels, CRIEPI has proposed the fuel cycle scenario given in Figurewhich has increased flexibility in the future nuclear fuel cycle this scenario, partitioning and transmutation (P&T) of the long-lived nuclides in high-level waste from aqueous reprocessing of light water reactor Cited by: 1.

In the s, therefore, Japanese nuclear utilities began to ship their spent fuel to Europe for reprocessing to obtain separated plutonium for startup cores for breeder reactors. Today, Japan ’s nuclear establishment does not expect to commercialize breeder reactors until after [ 27 ].

Thorium is much more abundant in nature than uranium. Thorium can be used as a nuclear fuel through breeding to uranium (U). When this thorium fuel cycle is used, much less plutonium and other transuranic elements are produced, compared with uranium fuel cycles.

Several thorium-fuelled reactor concepts are under consideration. Since reprocessing of discharged fuel for recovery of plutonium for fast breeder reactors is an integral part of the Indian nuclear power program, thus interim storage of spent fuel is of utmost.

A breeder-reactor-commercialization program with all the reprocessing, fuel testing, and fuel fabrication plants that would go with it, seemed a worthy successor. But the most powerful political supporter of Clinch River, then-President Richard Nixon, focused on a different point.

Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing THURSDAY, J Page 9 PREV PAGE TOP OF DOC A.M.– P.M. RAYBURN HOUSE OFFICE BUILDING 1. Purpose On Thursday, J the Energy Subcommittee of the House Committee on Science will hold a hearing to examine the status of nuclear fuel reprocessing technologies in the United States.

For this reason, the IAEA Director General has referred to enrichment and reprocessing as the “Achilles heel” of the nuclear nonproliferation regime The United States continues to believe that the best approach is for the commercial market to provide a reliable supply of nuclear fuel at reasonable cost from competing vendors in order to.

Japan is the only non-nuclear-weapon state with a program to extract plutonium from the spent fuel produced in nuclear reactors—a process termed reprocessing—to fabricate more fuel. Because plutonium can be used directly in the manufacturing of nuclear weapons, Japan has, in keeping with internationally recognized best practice, pledged not.

Concerned about U.S.-Japan diplomatic relations, Smith wanted Japan to have more leeway in reprocessing spent nuclear reactor fuel so that it could develop fast breeder reactors, although some worried that that would lead to mounting plutonium surpluses (Photo courtesy of Jimmy Carter Presidential Library).

Plutonium can also be used in MOX fuel in fully closed fuel cycles with fast reactors, which use higher-energy (fast) neutrons. A fast “breeder” reactor can be designed that actually produces more fissile material in the SNF than in the original fuel, Cited by: 2.

While the United States gave up both on breeder reactors and on reprocessing in the early s, some other countries continued reprocessing even after postponing breeder commercialization and decided to mix their separated plutonium with uranium in MOX fuel for existing light water reactors. The spent MOX fuel is stored pending future.

New nuclear power plants typically have high capital expenditure for building the plant. Fuel, operational, and maintenance costs are relatively small components of the total cost.

The long service life and high capacity factor of nuclear power plants allow sufficient funds for ultimate plant decommissioning and waste storage and management to be accumulated, with little impact on. Full text of "International Responses to Japanese Plutonium Programs" See other formats.

Achieving nuclear disarmament, stopping nuclear proliferation, and preventing nuclear terrorism are among the most critical challenges facing the world today. Unmaking the Bomb proposes a new approach to reaching these long-held goals. Rather than considering them as separate issues, the authors -- physicists and experts on nuclear security.

“The Nuclear Fuel Cycle Royal Commission was established by the South Australian Government on Thursday, 19 March to undertake an independent and comprehensive investigation into South Australia’s participation in four areas of activity that form part of the nuclear fuel cycle.

All four presidents intermittently advocated policies to lessen America’s dependence on oil from the Persian Gulf, but because of market competition with fossil fuels and strong opposition from antinuclear forces, the commercialization of nuclear energy ground to a standstill in the s.

The Cultural Contradictions of Environmentalism: Fast Breeder Reactor Edition being part of the effort to stop the commercialization of breeder nuclear-fuel reprocessing lab. Sellafield is a large multi-function nuclear site close to Seascale on the coast of Cumbria, England.

As of [update], activities at the site include nuclear fuel reprocessing, nuclear waste storage and nuclear decommissioning, and it is a former nuclear power generating site covers an area of two square miles and comprises more than nuclear facilities and.

the plutonium breeder carries the greatest risk of nuclear proliferation. Given this fact and the poor economic prospects 2/ The m1Bprinciples set out in the infamous "Black Book" are: o Government support should be focused on longer-term, high-risk R&D with potential for high payoff.

o Government involvement could continue only through "proof.In addition, toward a commercialization of FR cycle, it is making effort to lead the future nuclear non-proliferation models by concept study for the process in which uranium will be constantly accompanied by plutonium and minor actinides while developing state-of-art technologies of safeguards and physical protections of nuclear by: 2.Unfortunately, plutonium reprocessing and the resulting "plutonium economy" presented with a serious new security problem by substantially increasing the danger of proliferation of nuclear weapons.

The technology of reprocessing plutonium for civil reactors is the same as that for producing plutonium for weapons.